IPC and HS codes

Short name IPC Code Description HS Code Description
Electric vehicles B60L Propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles 870390 Automobiles nes including gas turbine powered
Wind motors F03D Wind motors 850231 Wind-powered generating
Batteries H01M Processes or means, e.g. Batteries, for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy 8506 Primary cells and primary batteries
Photovoltaic H01L Semiconductor devices; electric solid state devices not otherwise provided for 854140 Photosensitive/photovoltaic/LED semiconductor devices

Table A.1: IPC and HS codes used to measure the selected products

Technological and export proximity

Table A.2: Most similar technologies and export products based on country-level patenting and export activities, Note: While some connections appear to be intuitive, others might encode external factors that drive correlation, Source: Bruegel based on EPO PATSTAT (EPO 2016).